Cut The Rope Nds Rom 15
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cut the rope nds rom 15
Guidelines for the frequency of dilated eye examinations have been largely based on the severity of the retinopathy (1,4). For patients with moderate-to-severe NPDR, frequent eye examinations are necessary to determine when to initiate treatment. However, for patients without retinopathy or with only few microaneurysms, the need for annual dilated eye examinations is not as well defined. For these patients, the annual incidence of progression to either proliferative retinopathy or macular edema is low; therefore, some have suggested a longer interval between examinations (5). Recently, analyses suggested that annual examination for some patients with type 2 diabetes may not be cost-effective and that consideration should be given to increasing the screening interval (6). However, these analyses may not have completely considered all the factors: 1) The analyses assumed that legal blindness was the only level of visual loss with economic consequences, but other visual function outcomes, such as visual acuity worse than 20/40, are clinically important, occur much more frequently, and have economic consequences. 2) The analyses used NPDR progression figures from newly diagnosed patients with diabetes (7). Although rates of progression are stratified by HbA1c levels, newly diagnosed patients are different from those with the same level of retinopathy and have a longer diabetes duration. While rates of progression correlate with HbA1c levels, newly diagnosed patients with the same level of retinopathy progress differently than those with longer duration of disease. A person with a longer duration of diabetes is more likely to progress during the next year of observation (8). 3) The rates of progression were derived from diabetic individuals of northern European extraction and are not applicable to other ethnic and racial groups who have higher rates of retinopathy progression, such as African- and Hispanic-Americans (9,10).
ANTIQUARIANISMA movement which insisted on historically-accurate scenery and props on stage. The more stylized sliding wing flats were replaced by more detailed box sets including architectural features, props and furniture appropriate to the time period in whcih the show was taking place. Antiquarianism moved into theatres in the late eighteenth century in Europe.
ASSISTANT STAGE MANAGERUsually shortened to ASM, the assistant stage manager is the most junior member of the Stage Management team, and is often in charge of sourcing and running Properties during the run of a show. They are also a member of the stage 'crew'.The ASM is reponsible for setting props used during the show, as well as carrying out a pre-show check list to ensure all props are in the correct place and that all furniture used on stage is correctly placed for the start of the show. An ASM may also have a small acting role in some performances (they are then known as an Acting ASM).See also STAGE MANAGER and DSM.
AUDITIONProcess where the director or casting director of a production asks actors / performers to show them what they can do. Sometimes very nerve-wracking, but auditions can be a fairly painless process if handled properly. Performers are often asked to memorise a monologue from a play they like to perform for the director. Books full of suggested monologues are available. You may be asked to do a 'Cold Reading' which tests your own response to a piece of text you've not prepared. Some audition processes have pages of text available outside the audition room for actors to familarise themselves with before the audition.
BRAILA horizontal rope, wire or chain attached at either end of a piece of scenery or lighting bar pulling it upstage or downstage of its naturally hanging position to allow another flying item to pass, or to improve its position. See also BREAST LINE.In a hemp house, to 'Brail' a static piece a single dead line was put round the 'short' and 'long' line to move the piece to a new position. A running brail was a breast which allowed the flown piece still to fly in or out, in its new position.
CLEATPiece of timber or metal for tying off a rope line by taking a turn around it, followed by a series of figure eight turns and a locking tuck(s) made in the final turn. Used when flying or for holding scenic pieces together with a cleat line.Submitted by Chris Higgs
CONTACT SHEET1) A list of names and contact details (phone numbers, addresses) for cast and crew.2) A sheet showing all of the frames from a roll of film to enable a choice to be made about which to enlarge properly.
CYC STRETCHERA wooden block with a tightenable bolt through it, threaded-through by a rope, used to clamp to the offstage edges of a cyclorama cloth with the rope tied to an offstage fixing, ideally above head-height. Enables wrinkles in the cloth to be removed, and also helps to minimise cloth movements caused by air currents (doors opening, actors walking past etc).
DEAD1) A pre-plotted height for a piece of scenery or lighting bar - 'that bar's on its dead'. The positional indicators on the rope (either PVC tape, or more traditionally cotton tape passed through the strands of the rope) are called DEADS. Sometimes flying pieces are given a number of extra deads, that may be colour coded, in addition to the 'in dead' (lower) and 'out dead' (higher - out of view). In the US, TRIM has the same meaning. Fluorescent ribbon is often used, through the fibres of the rope. The fluorescent colour shows very clearly under UV light, which is often used to light fly floors. 2) Scenery or equipment not needed for current production - 'that table's dead'.3) An electric circuit that has been switched off or has failed - 'the circuit's dead, you can change the lamp now'Submitted by Chris Higgs
EXIT1) A part of the set through which actors can leave the stage.2) The act of an actor walking off the stage (e.g. The fireman exits downstage right). 3) A stage direction making it clear when a character should leave the scene. One of the most memorable is from Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale 'Exit, pursued by a bear'. The character being pursued is Antigonus, a lord of Sicilia, who has been ordered to abandon the baby Princess Perdita.4) A route from the auditorium to the outside, for use during an emergency by the audience. Marked by an illuminated EXIT SIGN, which is coloured for visibility (green in the UK / Europe, red in the USA). Exit signs must remain visible to the audience at all times, and local venue licencing laws will cover whether it must be illuminated at all times, and the size of the sign etc.
EXIT SIGNUsually illuminated sign, of standard size, which should always be visible, showing an audience member and the company the nearest exit.New legislation in Europe means that the word 'EXIT' has been removed from these signs to be replaced by 'Running Man', known more politically correctly as 'Person moving purposefully'.
FLY RAIL / FLYRAILOriginally, this was the structure where the flying lines / ropes were tied off to hold scenery and other flown equipment in position. With the advent of counterweighted systems, this refers to the area where the flying system is operated. Also known as PIN RAIL or, in the UK, FLY FLOOR.
HANGING AN ACTORThis is difficult effect to pull off successfully on stage, and must absolutely not be attempted without professional supervision, for obvious reasons. Harnesses can be obtained which are designed for this effect, and standard safety harnesses are not suitable. The rope must have a safety-rated rope built into it, which is suitable for suspending the shock load of the actors' weight, which must be attached to the harness in such a way that it's not possible for the fake noose to ever tighten around the actors' neck. The hanging must take place with other members of the company present, who have been trained in how the system works under professional supervision. Simply using a rope with a weak point (e.g. using weak cotton to connect the noose to the rest of the suspending rope) is no longer recommended as there are situations where it may not break, and any chance of this will not be acceptable to a risk assessment process. A far safer way to hang an actor is to do it offstage - use a blackout or blinding light along with a sound effect to misdirect the audience into thinking they've just seen a hanging, use a shadown projection (using small scale dummies) or even just use a rope in the shape of a noose with the actor approaching it at floor level followed by a fade to blackout. Never attempt an effect of this kind involving any suspension or dropping of an actor without a professional rigger experienced and trained in these effects.
LINE1) A rope length, once cut to length or installed for a specific function. (To cut a line from a coil of rope).2) A request from an actor for a prompt when they have forgotten their next line. Submitted by Chris Higgs
PROPS(Properties) Furnishings, set dressings, and all items large and small which cannot be classified as scenery, electrics or wardrobe. Props handled by actors are known as hand props, props which are kept in an actors costume are known as PERSONAL PROPS.
PROPS TABLETable in convenient offstage area on which properties are prepared prior to a performance and to which they should be returned after use. The table is usually marked out with a grid around each item, so it's easy to see when something is missing, and to do preshow checks that everything is ready to use. The preparation and checking of the props tables is the responsibility of the ASM (Assistant Stage Manager).