War On The Sea
I love World War II games and have reviewed quite a few over the years, from tactical and turn-based strategy titles like Partisans 1941 to total war strategy games like Making History, Hearts of Iron and Supreme Ruler. And although its not my favorite way to experience WWII, I do play most of the shooters like Call of Duty WWII as well as the older Medal of Honor series.
War on the Sea
Enter War on the Sea by Killerfish Games, which was recently released on Steam for the PC. Killerfish is known for naval combat games that push deep into the simulation genre. Their other games are Atlantic Fleet, which featured WWII action between the Germans and other allied nations, and Cold Waters which attempted to copy the gameplay formula found in the classic Red Storm Rising game. War on the Sea takes us to the Pacific and the war between Japan and the United States.
To foster privateering Congress passed laws that expedited the sale of prize goods, lowered some of the taxes on prized good, set up a pension fund for privateers wounded in action, and authorized a bounty payment equal to half the value of each vessel destroyed. In addition to these incentives which inspired profit, many seamen in both wars chose to pursue privateering instead of enlisting in the navy because the term of service was shorter (two to three months instead of a year) and because of the reduced risk of armed engagement. Privateers did not wish to engage in combat and would try to flee British ships, if that failed they would often surrender. In both wars, though small, the Navy attempted to compete with privateers for recruits and ultimately fell short, which resulted in conscription and impressment.
Despite British attempts to discourage privateering, privateers in both wars achieved great success in harassing British commerce and bolstering the American economy. The British refused to parole or exchange any prisoner from a privateer that maned less than fourteen guns. The British treated privateers, who made up a bulk of prisoners of war, very harshly to discourage privateering and encourage enlistment in the Royal Navy. British vessels traveling across the Atlantic were required to travel with an escort or in convoy. Consequently, American privateers often patrolled the waters of the British Isles and the West Indies, thus carrying war into British waters. These patrolling locations were made possible by the French, who allowed American privateers to dock in French waters.
New research finds that nuclear war would devastate the ocean, causing a steep drop in water temperature, collapsing the marine food web, and spurring significant growth of Arctic sea ice. Some changes, including the state of sea ice, could linger for hundreds or thousands of years after the smoke clears, according to a study published in the journal AGU Advances.
The research team was led by Louisiana State University (LSU) researcher Cheryl Harrison and includes three co-authors from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR): Alice DuVivier, Scott Bachman, and Charles Bardeen.
Researchers were also surprised to find that not only did the increase in sea ice persist for hundreds of years, the sea ice itself does not return to its original base state. Instead it appears to stabilize at a higher level.
This material is based upon work supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, a major facility sponsored by the National Science Foundation and managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Basil Germond does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.
Since Vladimir Putin sent his war machine into Ukraine on February 24 2022, The Conversation has called upon some of the leading experts in international security, geopolitics and military tactics to help our readers understand the big issues. You can also subscribe to our weekly recap of expert analysis of the conflict in Ukraine.
Another notable success was when Ukraine regained control over Snake Island, a small but strategically important outpost in the Black Sea (about 70 nautical miles south of Odesa) that had been taken by Russian forces in the opening days of the conflict.
All major shipping companies bar the Chinese have suspended their operations to and from Russia. But this significant collective effort has come at a cost to shipping companies. Declining trade with Russia and the ban on Russian flagged, owned or operated ships has also affected business in western ports.
Despite reports that a new Russian offensive is impending, naval power is not expected to play a major role as it is unlikely that the Russian navy will consider opening a new front around Odesa. But the longer a war lasts, the more likely it is to be won by a coalition of maritime nations that can control the global supply chain.
After General John Bell Hood abandoned Atlanta, he moved the Confederate Army of Tennessee outside the city to recuperate from the previous campaign. In early October he began a raid toward Chattanooga, Tennessee, in an effort to draw Sherman back over ground the two sides had fought for since May. But instead of tempting Sherman to battle, Hood turned his army west and marched into Alabama, abandoning Georgia to Union forces. Apparently, Hood hoped that if he invaded Tennessee, Sherman would be forced to follow. Sherman, however, had anticipated this strategy and had sent Major General George H. Thomas to Nashville to deal with Hood. With Georgia cleared of the Confederate army, Sherman, facing only scattered cavalry, was free to move south.
Sherman divided his approximately 60,000 troops into two roughly equal wings. The right wing was under Oliver O. Howard. Peter J. Osterhaus commanded the Fifteenth Corps, and Francis P. Blair Jr. commanded the Seventeenth Corps. The left wing was commanded by Henry W. Slocum, with the Fourteenth Corps under Jefferson C. Davis and the Twentieth Corps under Alpheus S. Williams. Judson Kilpatrick led the cavalry. Sherman had about 2,500 supply wagons and 600 ambulances. Before the army left Atlanta, the general issued an order outlining the rules of the march, but soldiers often ignored the restrictions on foraging.
After Fort McAllister fell, Sherman made preparations for a siege of Savannah. Confederate lieutenant general Hardee, realizing his small army could not hold out long and not wanting the city leveled by artillery as had happened at Atlanta, ordered his men to abandon the trenches and retreat to South Carolina. Sherman, who was not with the Union army when Mayor Richard Arnold surrendered Savannah (he had gone to Hilton Head, South Carolina, to make preparations for a siege and was on his way back to Georgia), telegraphed President Lincoln on December 22 that the city had fallen. He offered Savannah and its 25,000 bales of cotton to the president as a Christmas present.
General William T. Sherman captured Savannah in December 1864 and presented the city along with 25,000 bales of cotton to President Abraham Lincoln as a Christmas present. Sherman set up temporary headquarters in the Green-Meldrin House.
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Union general William T. Sherman devastated the Georgia countryside during his march to the sea. His men destroyed all sources of food and forage, often in retaliation for the activities of local Confederate guerrillas.
General William T. Sherman's commanders on the March to the Sea were: (standing left to right) Oliver O. Howard, William B. Hazen, Jefferson C. Davis, Joseph A. Mower, (seated left to right) John A. Logan, Sherman, Henry W. Slocum, Francis P. Blair Jr.
Ohio native and Union general William T. Sherman lost the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in June 1864. In September of that same year his army captured Atlanta before embarking on its March to the Sea, from Atlanta to Savannah, in November. Sherman later chronicled his wartime experiences in a memoir, published in 1875.
Fort McAllister, a Confederate earthwork fortification near the mouth of the Ogeechee River, was designed by military engineers to absorb considerable punishment from Union bombardment. The fort was built chiefly for defense against naval attacks.
A war of words between Moscow and London escalated on Thursday as both sides accused one another of giving inaccurate accounts of an incident involving a British warship and Russian forces in the Black Sea.
Russia said it fired warning shots and dropped bombs in the path of HMS Defender on Wednesday as it sailed off the coast of the Crimea peninsula, accusing the Royal Navy destroyer of breaching its territorial waters.
The UK government said it would not accept unlawful interference with the principle of innocent passage following the incident, which officials said took place as HMS Defender was travelling on an internationally recognised route from Odessa, Ukraine, to Georgia.
Though in some ways relatively primitive, the uncrewed capabilities used by Ukraine could presage a wider shift in the conduct of war at sea. The USVs, which appear to be equipped with electrooptical and infrared sensors as well as Starlink antennae, represent a relatively simple uncrewed capability, powered in part by commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology including a propulsion system from a recreational power jet. This is not the first time uncrewed explosive boats have been used effectively: the Houthis, for example, utilised remotely operated uncrewed boats in a 2017 attack on the Saudi frigate Al Madinah. Moving forward, uncrewed swarming capabilities could become more sophisticated. For example, the Chinese company Yunzhou Tech has conducted demonstrations of action against hostile targets by coordinated swarms of USVs that can designate targets and engage them autonomously. As likely advances in areas like lithography drive exponential increases in the processing power of semiconductors, increasingly sophisticated algorithms can be run on ever smaller platforms. It is not, then, entirely surprising that some commentators see swarms of smart uncrewed capabilities as being a central feature of the future battlefield, and raise serious concerns about the risks to expensive multi-mission platforms. 041b061a72